The Primary Policy Drivers for Federal renewable energy use are:
- Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct05) - Section 203
- Executive Order 13423
- National Defense Authorization Acts of 2007 & 2010
- Executive Order 13514
- Energy Independence & Security Act of 2007 (EISA)
Each of these policies is described briefly below.
Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct05)
EPAct05 requires to the extent “economically feasible and technically practicable”, Federal agencies must procure an escalating percentage of renewable electricity. EPAct05 also provides a bonus credit to electricity delivered from renewable assets located onsite or on Federal or Tribal lands
Agencies Year Renewable Electricity Civilian & Defense 2007-2009 3% 2010-2012 5% 2013+ 7.5% Defense 2025 25%*
Executive Order 13423"Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy and Transportation Management"
In 2007, E.O. 13423 added additional policy guidance to implementing EPAct05, prescribing agencies should implement onsite renewable energy projects whenever feasible. EO 13423 also required Federal agencies procure at least half of the prescribed renewable energy required to comply with Section 203 from ‘new’ facilities placed in service after 1999.
National Defense Authorization Act of 2007 (NDAA)
Section 2829 of the 2007 NDAA codified a Department of Defense-wide voluntary goal to produce or procure 25% or more its total electricity consumption by 2025.
Executive Order 13514"Federal Leadering in Environmental, Energy and Economic Management"
In 2010, E.O. 15314 required agencies and the Federal Government as a whole to inventory and set Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction targets. These requirements indirectly support renewable energy projects, as many of these projects have no or low emissions. Other specific Administration policies in the E.O. related to renewable energy include: 1. Leveraging agency acquisitions to foster markets for sustainable technologies 2. Aligning Federal policies to increase the effectiveness of local planning for energy choices, such as locally generated renewable energy.
The Energy Independence & Security Act of 2007 (EISA)
Section 523 of EISA is the only other directly applicable renewable energy procurement requirement enacted by Congress, requiring that new or substantially renovated Federal buildings satisfy 30% of their hot water demand from solar thermal technologies.